From the moment of its "invention" the game volleyball endures a rapid development (Patterson, 2012). It is expressed in a growing number of volleyball players, and in a growing number of countries-members of the International Federation of Volleyball. On its prevalence, this game comes to the forefront on the world sports.
Volleyball became not only a kind of sports but also a game for rest. It began its development as mean of leisure, maintenance of health and working capacity restoration.
Officially, the date of birth of volleyball is considered to be 1895 when the teacher of Physical Education in Holyoke college (the State of Massachusetts, the USA), William Morgan, invented a game of volleyball, and then developed its first rules. It is the official version though there are also other versions of volleyball invention. Some are inclined to consider the ancestor of volleyball to be an American Halsted from Springfield who in 1866 started propagandizing the game in "a flying ball", called volleyball (History of Volleyball, n.d.).
Volleyball is played on a court 9х18 meters in size. The entire court is divided into two equal halves by the average line over which the net is hung. The height of the net depends on the age and the sex of players. 12 players participate in the game (6 players on each side), and it is conducted by a ball weighting 250 grams and a circle of 65-68 centimeters.
The sense of the game is in not allowing a ball to fall on the court, making efforts for making it fall on the side of the opposite team. The actions of the players, limited to the rules, are carried out by game techniques: pass, serve, set, block and attack. The starting positions for game techniques will be standards (in actions on a place) and movements (in actions in movement).
The game consists of three or five sets in each of them the score is kept to 15 points. The team becomes a winner when it wins two sets of three or three of five. If the first set is won by one team, and the second set is won by another, the third and decisive set is carried out. Similar conditions are when five sets are played. After each set the teams change their sides on the court.
The arrangement of the players on the court is the following. Three players take a place on the forward line of the net, the others - on the back line so that it is possible to supervise the whole court. The volleyball players, being on the forward line, participate in passes and receptions, they attack, block and secure each other. The players of the back line serve, receive and pass the ball they secure but have no right to come to the forward line for attacking and blocking.
The game begins with giving the ball to one of the teams. The right to the first serve is chosen by the lot which is carried out by the judge with the captains of the teams. The captain of the team, who has won the lot, acquires the right to a choice of the court or to the first serve.
When the players take the places on the court, the judge gives the command to begin the game. Serving the ball should take not more than 5 seconds. One player carries out serving unless his/her team makes a mistake. If it occurs, the ball is passed to the rival. In this case, the team, which has played the serve, makes a movement of the players from one zone to another clockwise.
Each team, receiving the ball from serving by the rival, has the right to three serial touches. If two players of one team touch the ball at the same time, two touches are set off. If the ball stays too long over the net between the hands of the players of different teams, the game stops. The repeated serve is made for the draw of the jump ball.
The ball is considered bowled off if it flew by behind the restrictive tapes on the net which are fastened over the projection of the lateral lines, or if it touched the objects out of the court. The lateral and front lines (marking) are included into the square of the game field.
The set is considered won if one of the teams scored 15 points with an advantage not less than 2 points. At the score 14:14 the game proceeds until one of the teams achieves the advantage in 2 points (16:14; 17:15, etc.)
The team has the right to two breaks for 30 seconds in each set. The replacement of players is allowed but no more than six in each set.
Volleyball players have to wear an identical uniform. Slippers should not have heels. The players are forbidden to have jewelry which during the game can be the reason of trauma. The numbers (from the 1st to the 99th) are put on the T-shirts and there should not be two and more players with identical numbers on T-shirts in the team.
During the game only the captain can address the judge. The player has no right:
- to challenge the decision of judges and do remarks in their address;
- to behave tactlessly in relation to the rival or do offensive remarks to the players of the opposing team.
One of the important tasks in volleyball is the problem of a trajectory definition, a speed of the ball flight and ability "to come to the ball" timely - to reach a convenient starting position for reception of the pass, attacking blow, blocking. The ability to solve such problems can be quickly developed with special exercises.
The leading role is played by speed and force in certain combinations. Thus, the speed of the muscular reduction and the regulation of the movements speed have the paramount value. A special significance is attached to the spatial accuracy of movements which is extremely important at the first and second passes, serving and attacking blows.
The speed of the motive reaction and the ability to operate the time of movements are important.
One more distinctive feature of the volleyball is complexity and the speed of the solution of the motive tasks in game situations. The volleyball has to consider an arrangement of the players on the court, foresee the actions of the partners and solve the plan of the opponent, make the analysis of the developed situation quickly, pass the decision on the most expedient action and execute this action effectively. The degree and urgency of the task solutions, which depend on the speed of actions of the players, rise considerably in a high-speed game.
The special place in the game equipment is occupied by standards and movements.
In the attack technique, there is one standard - the main. At this standard the legs are settled down on the width of shoulders, bent in knees, the trunk is in a vertical position and hands are bent in elbows in front of the breast.
When performing the attack techniques, the player should move. The movements can be executed by walking or running in various directions.
When performing the attacking blows, jumps by a push with two feet or one foot, standing jumps, or a running start, can be applied. The technique can be executed correctly only in the case when the player took up the main standard having moved in due time.
Passes are one of the main techniques in volleyball. Depending on the position of hands, when performing passes, the top and bottom passes by two and one hand differ. The basis for the correct performance of a pass is timely movement under the ball and the reception of the main standard.
Passes can be various according to the distance and height. According to distance, there are short and long passes, and according to height - low, average and high ones. The feature of the performance of long and high passes is a more active work of feet. When performing the top passes it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the line of shoulders of the player should be perpendicular to the direction in which the pass is carried out.
Serve is a way of introducing the ball into the game. In modern volleyball, serve is used not only to start a game but also as a powerful technique of attack. Serves can be of different types - bottom straight, bottom lateral, top direct and top lateral.
All serves are carried out according to the requirements specified in the rules: the serving player stands outside the court on a serving place, throws the ball and directs it through the net on the side of the opponent in a blow of one hand.
The player has to seek to strike a blow with the ball in the highest point of take-off, in "a dead point". He/she has to strike a blow with the ball on it irrespective of the nature of serving. The ball always has to be slightly ahead of the player. This situation gains crucial importance at blows. With a low and "shoot through" passes, it helps the forward to orient concerning the block (Patterson, 2012). The running start on the trajectory, close to the right angle in relation to the net, creates greater tactical opportunities for the attacking player than the running start along the net.
The improvement of attacking blows is carried out both without the block counteraction and with the passive or active resistance of the blocking players.
It is useful for players to develop a peculiar muscular feeling, jumping as high as possible to strike a blow to the ball "at your height" (Patterson, 2012).
The block is the main protective technique. The equipment of blocking is simple: jumping and carrying out hands over the upper edge of the net. The important role is also played by the movements of the player to the place of the block statement.
The player moves along the net with added or crossed steps, running or at a slow pace, having bent hands, holding brushes at the level of a face. During the movement and jump, the look of the blocking player is directed on the attacking player of the opponent.
Volleyball is one of the most widespread games in the whole world. Mass, originally national character of volleyball is explained by its high emotionality and availability based on the simplicity of rules of the game and simplicity of the equipment. The special advantage of volleyball as means of physical training is its specific quality - a possibility of self-dispensing of loading that is the compliance between the efficiency of the player and loading which he/she receives. This makes volleyball a game suitable for people of all ages.