The vaccination of children is one of the subjects which separate the world community. It is proved that the organism of a newborn is not ready to confront the infections. However, there are numerous fatal cases and invalidization of children, which force their parents to doubt the need of this procedure. Immunologists call for vaccination; after all, if there are no immunological layers, it can serve as the outbreak of diseases. The opponents of vaccination call it "money laundering" through the state budget, and the WHO (World Health Organization) - the pharmaceutical lobbyist.
The main objective of vaccine prevention is the formation of the specific immunity to a certain irritator by means of the injection of anti-gene complexes to an organism (the irritator's particles, the products of its activity killed or non-active microorganisms). The main thesis of the vaccine prevention states that any infection is easier to prevent than to cure.
According to Link K. (2005), it is known that a large number of people in the ancient times perished not because of wars or hunger, but as a result of the most terrifying epidemics. For example, smallpox is considered to be the main cause of the death of the Maya civilization. It happened because of a sick sailor who was onboard the Spanish vessel which arrived on the American coast in 1521. Smallpox carried away 3.5 million lives of the indigenous people of America over the next few years.
The turning point in the history of vaccination is connected with the name of an English doctor E. Jenner (1749-1823). He noticed that peasants, who periodically caught cow smallpox, have never felt ill with the "human" smallpox. Jenner assumed that the suffered cow smallpox is the protection from the human smallpox and he conducted a revolutionary experiment: he inoculated an eight-year boy with the liquid from the vials on a hand of the milkmaid. All subsequent attempts to infect the boy with the human smallpox were unsuccessful. Thus, vaccination appeared.
Vaccination is the single most cost-effective health intervention known to modern science and public policy. Effective use of vaccines results in low childhood mortality, freedom from epidemics of devastating diseases, and protection against widespread illnesses such as influenza and pneumonia. These facts are viewed as axiomatic by the medical and public health communities.
Vaccination is an ambiguous phenomenon, especially in its thoughtless and mass application. It is necessary to consider that some children's infections (measles, rubella, and chicken pox) are a natural training for immunity, and the created protection is much more effective than vaccination. Another important aspect of vaccination is that the inoculated girls lose vaccinating immunity to some infections up to a childbearing age. Therefore, they cannot transfer an antibody with blood through placenta to fetus; thus, a child is born unprotected.
Vaccination does not give to a child a 100% protection from the infectious diseases. However, it gives an opportunity to significantly reduce the risk of a disease during the first year of life of a kid. It is very important - the younger a child is, the weaker his immune system is. If a child is sick, the vaccination made in advance will promote the illness course and prevent the hard from of complications. The mass vaccination allows avoiding epidemics across the nation. Therefore, the vaccination scheme looks as following:
1. Preparation for vaccination.
2. Vaccination course.
3. A check of the vaccination efficiency, for example, by means of the blood analysis on antibodies.
When born the majority of children possess a congenital passive immunity. If a child is on a breast feeding, his/her immunity becomes even stronger at the expense of the antibodies containing in the breast milk. An artificial immunity or vaccination is one of the ways of a child's protection. Only one injection is capable to protect a kid from the diseases which were considered to be the most terrible illnesses of the mankind several decades ago.
It is considered that vaccines protect children from potentially dangerous diseases at the very beginning of their lives. This is their main mission. The natural protection of an organism against the infectious diseases is called immunity. When the causative agent of this or that infection gets to an organism, the immune system starts developing antibodies which resist this infection.
Vaccines allow developing an immune response to diseases, without having had this or that disease. Vaccines represent the solution, containing the causative agents of illnesses in extremely low concentrations. They are entered usually by means of injections. Vaccines do not cause a disease; nevertheless, the antibodies are developed in an organism, and immunity is formed.
The vaccination of children was considered the main way of preventing undesirable infections in newborns. The medicine goes ahead; thus, the vaccines, which are successfully applied practically around the world, are constantly updated and improved. It allows lowering the level of development of those infections, which threaten the activity of a person, and first of all, of a child.
A vaccine for the flu prevention is a biological preparation, providing the formation of a short-term immunity to the flu virus; it is considered to be one of the best flu prevention methods. The vaccination and applications of medicines against influenza virus have to protect a human body from the flu virus (Moshe, 1998).
The vaccination for MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) is rather effective and used all over the world.
These diseases spread from person to person through the air. You can easily catch them by being around someone who is already infected. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and adults) from all three of these diseases.
The efficiency of vaccination of the school children against flu has been proved recently. During the period from 1962 to 1987 there was the decrease in superfluous deaths (being observed in the seasonal flu epidemics), which was replaced after 1987 by its increase, and since 1994 a sharp increase was noted. Such dynamics of the superfluous deaths can be possibly caused by the fact that at mass vaccination of school children the intensity of distribution of the flu virus among senior people decreases at the expense of the formation of population immunity.
There are a lot of contra-indications to vaccination:
1. Heavy progressing diseases of a nervous system.
2. The reaction expressed by absolutely inadequate image to the previous inoculation - anaphylactic shock, a condition of a clinical death. There are no complications after the vaccinations at the brothers and sisters of a child or among other members of the family.
3. A sharp somatic condition of a child at the moment of an inoculation. In case of an aggravation of a chronic illness vaccination is postponed until the absolute recovery.
Despite the narrow contra-indications and persevering desire of some medics to vaccinate a child by all means, it is necessary to make inoculation only after the consultations of immunologists and doctors. The contra-indications can be avoided with the help of the calendar of injections.
Influenza (flu) is a serious virus illness, which affects men, women and children of any age and any nationality. The children are more often affected by this sickness. Flu is one of the most epidemic diseases, which require vaccination. It periodically flashes in the form of epidemics and even pandemics worldwide. The scientists feverishly look for the ways of protection against flu; there are new vaccines against certain strains of it.
A seasonal flu can cause severe complications, especially among senior people and people with already available disorders of health. It is not necessary to underestimate the risk of the complications and serious consequences of flu, taking into consideration a potential risk of vaccination. Immunization saves lives, and the price of an illness is doubtlessly much higher than the prevention price.
There are several types of vaccination against flu:
- Alive flu vaccine is produced from the weakened strain of flu virus of A and B groups. It is grown in chicken embryos. These vaccines can be used for children who are 3 years old and older.
- Inactive vaccine is the virus of types A and B, received from the virus-containing liquid growing in chicken embryos. An inactivated vaccine forms general and local types of immunity, which provide a reliable illness protection. It is widely used for children, who are 3 years old and older.
- Split-vaccine has superficial and internal antigen of the flu virus. According to the majority of researches, it can be applied in any age, starting from 6 months old.
- Subunit vaccine is prepared from the superficial proteins. It is usually applied for adults.
In five countries of the European Union, Switzerland, and also in Canada there is a temporary ban on the use of a vaccine against flu, produced by the company Novartis. The authorities took this precautionary measure after the detection of albuminous fractions in vaccines. Vaccines were made in Novartis plant in Italy and have various trading names, including Agrippal, Bergripal, Chiroflu, Chiromas, Fluad, Influpozzi and Sandovac.
Such regulating measures are standard and allow inspecting the quality and safety of the vaccines. The additional risks for people, who have already been inoculated with these vaccines, are not revealed. The albuminous fractions, found in a vaccine theoretically can increase the probability of the local reactions or symptoms of the flulike symptoms, which are quite often shown after the seasonal vaccination against flu.
The processes of ensuring the quality at the level of the producer and the regulating control guarantee the quality, safety and efficiency of the production of medical appointment. The production of vaccines is a carefully controllable, but complex process that assumes the possibility of some natural variability. The WHO recommends the use of the vaccines against flu, which are made according to the international standards and are prescribed for the usage by national regulatory authorities.
The Canadian scientists developed the new vaccine against the ovarian cancer.
The creation of the unique vaccine was possible owning to the recent break in the field of the interpretation of the DNA sequence. It is a question of absolutely new approach never earlier used. The work of the Canadian scientists is financed by the organization "Genome of the British Columbia" with the joint support of the government and the private companies which allocated $ 550 million dollars for the development of such projects.
In case of early diagnostics of the ovarian cancer the level of survival rate reaches 90 %, but the modern medicine does not have the means of adequate diagnostics, and disease symptoms often appear dim. Unfortunately, the majority of diagnoses are put at a late stage. The danger of the ovarian cancer consists in the fact that the malignant cells are capable to be implanted to the other bodies - a uterus, a bladder - forming the new tumors.
The Canadians develop not preventive, but a therapeutic vaccine: the researchers plan to inject it to the patients, who have already had surgery and a course of chemotherapy. As a rule, the patients react to traditional methods of treatment well, but there is a cancer recurrence in 2-3 years. By then, there is stability to chemotherapy, and the survival rate level sharply decreases.
The therapeutic Canadian vaccine is injected right after chemotherapy. This vaccine in a literal sense "trains" the immune system of an organism to react correctly to the emergence of malignant cells and to destroy them at an early stage. Moreover, the Canadian vaccine can be individually prepared for each patient, according to his DNA profile. Moreover, in case of the cancer recurrence, such an approach allows creating a new more powerful individual vaccine taking into account the potential changes of DNA, capable to kill the cancer cells, which have undergone mutation. The unique vaccine singles out 5 types of similar mutations, providing the patient with the excellent chances of an absolute recovery. According to some information, the American researchers use a similar approach for the development of the individual vaccines from the other types of oncological diseases.
There a lot of cases, testifying to an increase of the mortality rates after mass vaccination. For example, in 1902 when the biggest part of the US population was vaccinated, the mortality from smallpox reached 2121 cases. By 1910 the catastrophic consequences of vaccination led to the fall of trust in it. Thus, mortality fell up to 202 cases. The producers of vaccines used the madness of the World War I and started the national vaccinating campaign, which led to the mortality increase to 358 (1919) and 642 (1921) cases respectively. When people started noticing that the vaccinated population suffers more from flu and smallpox (a vaccination consequence), they began to lose trust in it. By 1927the mortality rate fell to 138 cases. Despite these awful facts, the followers of the idea still consider that vaccination of children has a good impact on their health.
The current approach to the vaccines indicates that the most important measures for the correct inoculation include the following: adaptation of the schedule of vaccination to the features of immune system of a child; vaccination in compliance with a vaccination calendar of a definite country; individual preparation for vaccination, in case of need; and a full information and control of the course of the post-vaccine reactions.
There is the law about the harm of vaccination for children, which was adopted in 1986. In 1989 the Tribunal honored about 2500 suits; the total compensation sum was about two billion dollars.
Besides, the law of 1986 gives the right to Products and Medicines Department, National Vaccine Program Department, to issue the epidemiological conclusions about preparations for the vaccine usage. In this regard the US Supreme Court decided that only indicated supervisory authorities can make the decision about the potential danger of preparations and their withdrawal.
In 1986 there was the law related to compensation to those who suffered from vaccines; it was adopted by the US Congress. In 1988 the first program aimed at the compensation to people who suffered from vaccines was launched in America. Each state in the USA gives the opportunity to refuse vaccination.
Thirteen reporting states did not meet the 95 percent vaccination coverage target for one or more vaccines, but many of those lagged only slightly below the Healthy People 2010 objective. For example, Georgia's vaccination rate of kindergarten-aged children was 93.7 percent for all recommended vaccines.
There are a lot of laws and norms concerning vaccination at the local level. If a child in the USA receives a full set of the recommended inoculations, he/she will be made 36 injections with 113 pathogenic agents, 59 chemicals, 4 types of animal cells/DNA, from the human DNA of the tissues of aborted fetuses and a human albumin.
Any medication, including vaccination, can have side effects. Parents have the right to refuse injections for their children. Any child has no obligation to be vaccinated for attending school. Each doctor should accept any parents' decision and respect it.
There should be stricter requirements for inoculation practices. It is necessary to be sure that a child is vaccinated in correct terms. Usually, only absolutely healthy children are vaccinated according to the schedule; thus, the question about the terms of vaccination is solved in an individual way by a pediatrician. It is extremely important to make all necessary tests before the procedure and to study the results in details. Moreover, it is necessary to take the possible allergic reactions of a child under consideration.
The researches about vaccines, their advantages and complications should start from the disinterested scientific institutions and organizations. Objectivism should be the priority in the choice of vaccination sources. There are a lot of special laws in the USA concerning the problem of vaccination, and the rights for refuse and struggle with the possible consequences of it. If the laws remain the same, the quantity of children who became invalid due to the vaccination can increase in the nearest future.
Homeopathy is not the opponent of vaccination. It is a special science (not concerning the classical medicine), studying the ways of prevention of diseases and treatment of alive beings by means of a water charged in a special way. The main advantage of the homeopathic drugs is their absolute safety. The water, strongly charged and correctly succussed, not containing anything except for the useful spirit of certain substances, cannot bring any direct harm.
Speaking of the history of homeopathy, it is necessary to remember that throughout the 19th century the homeopathy was, in fact, the unique medical system, capable to offer real preventive measures against the infectious diseases. A belladonna as a prophylactic means against a scarlet fever; camphor, arsenic and a hellebore against cholera; cyanic mercury against diphtheria; varioline (homeopathically prepared preparation from the variolous pus) against natural smallpox; a yellow jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens) against flu. The innumerable quantity of lives was rescued by the homoeopathists, while the "scientific" medicine did not have any idea about the nature of these diseases, but also, unlike homeopathy, and means against them.
Homeopathy does not belong to vaccination as both theories are based on the concept of treatment with the "similar" substances. However, vaccination is a rough application of such a substance, and homoeopathists always pay attention to the careful usage of vaccines. The injections with large amounts of alien proteins to an organism can cause dangerous "side effects" and "negative reactions".
An artificial stimulation of specific immune reactions can threaten with danger to the natural immune balance of an organism and interfere with performance of protective functions by it. The empirical data, based on the clinical experience, allows assuming that a naturally proceeding illness increases the general immune protection of the whole organism; while vaccination strengthens the immunity to the specific "disease" and can reduce the general ability of an organism to defend itself from the other diseases.
Homeopathy considers children's diseases and their role in the prevention or mitigation of the parasitic nature of chronic diseases in a special way. From the very beginning homeopathy considered the main children' diseases as the mechanisms, by means of which an organism gets rid of the congenital weaknesses, defects or hereditary illnesses. An excessive inoculation against children's diseases can block the natural mechanism of disposal of an organism from these defects laying a way to the future chronic diseases. The organism should "learn" to be sick, and for this purpose a certain practice is necessary for it. If the organism is deprived of this practice at the beginning of life, it cannot have an opportunity to develop the protective mechanism, capable of sustaining more serious diseases later in life. Therefore, an immune system can benefit by a certain quantity of stress from a disease at young age. Thus, there is a vital importance of such illnesses as measles, mumps, German measles, chicken pox and even whooping cough, because they train and strengthen body.
Tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis are much more dangerous diseases; therefore, the vaccination against them is desirable. Many parents prefer to vaccinate their children against these illnesses later, when the immune system of a child is better developed; it is made for the delay of the intervention in a natural immune balance of an organism. Certainly, strong drugs considerably reduce the risk of these children's diseases. However, if there is a possibility to use only homeopathic means, it is better to use them instead of vaccination.
Homeopathy does not resist the vaccination. It is a complete and quite self-sufficient method for which the idea of notorious (and unpredictable) health deteriorations at its most intimate and thinnest levels for the sake of expected advantage is absurd by definition. There are no panaceas in medicine; it contradicts the biological laws. Homeopathy as a whole is not against vaccination. It is better to explore the vaccine reactions and complications, and also to carry out their prevention and treatment.
Having studied literature on this subject, I would like to draw a conclusion that vaccination is one of the best means to protect children against the infectious diseases, which caused serious problems before inoculations were available. The unreasonable criticism of vaccination in mass media was caused by the journalists' aspiration to inflate a sensation from separate cases of post-vaccine complications. Of course, there are a lot of side effects of all medicines, including vaccines. However, the risk to receive complication from injections is much more insignificant than the risk from the consequences of an infectious disease for not vaccinated children.