Gender and Race Discrimination
People spent lots of efforts, trying to eliminate ethnic, racial, and gender discrimination in the last few decades. Unfortunately, there are still a lot of issues to be solved. Social dominance theory (SDT) allows approaching the problems, mentioned above, in the traditional way. SDT offers grouping the societies into hierarchies, which can be classified by the following categories: age-system, patriarchal-system and arbitrary-system.
Patriarchy - and arbitrary-based systems differ by many criteria, with 5 distinguished as the key ones. Firstly, both males and females happen to be fully co-depending on each other, i.e. people cannot exist without their opposite sex. Multiple issues may raise the conflict and isolation of people, except for the gender factor. Secondly, the nature and level of integration within dominant and subordinate categories differ in the patriarchy- and arbitrary-set hierarchy in terms of sexual/emotional attachment. Males and females share a more positive emotional/sexual contact than dominant and subordinate arbitrary-sets do. Following the pattern, the third distinction originates from the second. It reveals the arbitrary-set hierarchy as the one possessing way: more valance, brutality and oppression. Patriarchy has rather strong issues of such type as well, but they are less intense and not as long-lasting as the ones within the arbitrary-set hierarchy, which has proven to have impact on the world history in the most crucial ways. The fourth distinction can be revealed by means of analyzing the transhistorical and transsituational constancy of both hierarchies' structures. Arbitrary-set system involves using any types of sensitivity or flexibility to define clearly the salient group distinctions. The fifth distinction appears to be located in transcultural and transspecies generalizability, since patriarchy existed across the different cultures and in all times. It was only changed with respect to the degree of its development. All the societies, during one period or another, appeared to be at least a bit influenced by the matriarchy. Patriarchy developed earlier in the history, while arbitrary-set hierarchy was not found in small prehistoric hunter societies, but took big groups and events over in the twentieth century.