Racial and Gender Discrimination
"Racial discrimination is an idea of inferiority, physical or intellectual, of a separately taken race or an ethnic group" (Garcia). Racists are sure that there are only two types of people in the world - the highest, that is the nation to which the racist belongs, and all the others - the lowest, whose life purpose is to serve as slaves for the former. In a modern society which it is accepted to be called civilized, racism of the minorities is one of the most condemned concepts.
Cgarles Garcia in his article "Racial Discrimination" describes the person, who is stating racist views in public, risks face not only a strong moral condemnation but also some repressions up to a criminal prosecution. He thinks that racism is a concept according to which "races are not equal among themselves" that means they differ in terms of some essential issues which can be objectively estimated in categories "better - worse" (Garcia). He affirms that the reason of racism of the minorities is in the ethnic conflict. And as for "the reasons of this conflict, there are two of them: sociological and psychological" (Garcia).
The psychological reason is quite simple: blacks are others, and whites refuse to understand them. A sociological explanation can be subdivided into two: a conflict of cultures and a conflict of interests. The cultural conflict occurs when some norms appear accepted in one culture but unacceptable in another. And the conflict of interests is a fight for any resources: from labor to the territory. When people live in different territories, nothing awfully happens. They do not understand each other and that is all. But as soon as an ethnic mixture begins, the problems always arise.
Blacks, in turn, cannot forgive themselves for the past. They cannot forgive for the fact that they allowed to enthrall themselves, allowed to take out violently themselves from the country, to deprive themselves of their culture and language. They never will forgive this mistake to the white people.
Charles Garcia in his article gives the statistics, published on January 11th, 2011. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) got record charges: the Agency recorded the highest quantity of discrimination accuses in 2011 since the foundation of the Agency in 1965. The number of accuses recorded by the EEOC in 2011 was 99,922, that is 7.1% more than it was fixed in 2010. There were 35,890 race discrimination accuses , which was 6.9% more than in 2010), sex discrimination accuses - 29,029, which was 3.9% more than in 2010), national discrimination charges - 11,304, which was 1.5% more than in 2010, religion discrimination charges - 3,790, which was 1.9% more than in 2010, and disability discrimination - 25,165, which was 17% more than in 2010. (Garcia). That means that the discrimination not only exists, it rises to record highs.
Michael Fielding in his article "Race Discrimination" writes that ethnic minorities - the Afro-Americans, Indians, Hispanic inhabitants of the USA as well as the Muslim American are exposed to the discrimination in different areas including electoral rights, civil rights, and education. It is noted in the document that "about 5,4 million citizens are debarred from voting. And the vast majority of them belong to ethnic minorities" (Fielding).
The discrimination of people on the basis of the race, skin color or ethnic origin is an obstacle to the friendly and peaceful relations between the nations and can lead to a breach of the peace and safety among the people as well as a harmonious coexistence of people even in the same state. The existence of racial barriers contradicts ideals of any human society.
Julia Mullins in her article "Gender Discrimination" writes that it was not easy to achieve a progress in the gender equality. And though it did not impact equally on all the countries, all the women and not all the aspects of the gender equality, women became freer now in a choice of possibilities opening for them. Now some of them feel a considerable discomfort from the need to play a role of a "superwoman", that is balancing between their career and home keeping. She thinks it is more difficult for a woman to be a good mother, a good wife and a good specialist in a new society. At the same time, instead of the rearrangement of the responsibility for education and care of the children exclusively on mothers, many fathers became more active to join in this process, recognizing that it is their responsibility, too. The legislation also allows taking child care leaves today not only by mothers: any member of the family can take a leave on the care of the child instead of the mother. In 2010, the statistics showed that only 3 % of men used this right (Mullins). The changes, concerning sexual behavior and morals, also take place. The free choice of means of the protection from unplanned pregnancy contributes women to be more confident in the sexual relations. The public opinion in relation to a female sexuality is also of great importance. The sex revolution allowed women to be liberated, and both sexes can receive a bigger satisfaction with intimacy as both partners feel free and equal now.
Though many women still have to fight against the gender discrimination manifestations in an everyday life, Julia Mullins considers that the situation has already been changed for the better - and these changes have passed so quickly that even it was impossible to imagine them only twenty years ago (Mullins). Women managed to achieve an unprecedented progress in ensuring their rights, in education and health as well as an access to work and income sources. Never before so many countries could not have guaranteed women and men legally equal rights in such spheres as a property possession, inheritance and marriage. In total, 136 countries guarantee directly the equality of all the citizens and the prevention of the discrimination of men and women in the constitutions today (Mullins).